What is at the end of a research paper

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What is at the end of a research paper

Both technologies add an additional layer of security to your email communication. If used properly, both technologies should guarantee confidentiality and authenticity of your email messages even if an attacker has full access to your email account.

Journalists, political activists or whistleblowers use an additional encryption layer, often PGP, because they fear that someone gets access to their email communication. This leads to the situation where anyone getting access to their email communication can also read the victims emails even if they use additional PGP encryption.

Can you read my emails? You are thus only affected if an attacker already has access to your emails. But my emails are TLS encrypted!

TLS is a transport layer encryption technology that encrypts network traffic among email clients and email servers, or between two email servers. However, the emails are processed and stored in plaintext on the servers and in the email accounts. Any attacker getting access to these emails, either via compromising an email account or an email server, can read and change these emails.

Is my email client affected? Can I find out whether I have already been attacked? A strong indication for these attacks could be, for example, malformed emails with unclosed img tags followed by encrypted content, or encrypted content that exfiltrates the plaintext to foreign URLs.

However, note that emails are encrypted with the keys of sender as well as all receivers. The attacker can target any of these parties to exfiltrate content that is important to you.

In advanced attack scenarios where the attacker is in control of the email server, she could have deleted the malicious emails after the victim has processed them.

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I don't send HTML emails. I have disabled HTML in my email client. Am I safe now? Will signatures prevent these attacks? Even if signatures did matter: Can you decrypt my own encrypted emails when I lost my private key?

The EFAIL attacks target a victim, who is in possession of the private key and who decrypts our prepared emails in an email client. Do I need to revoke my certificate or public key?

She does not get direct access to the private key. There may be edge cases though that we hadn't looked into. For example, if you encrypted a directory with sensitive files, an attacker could change these encrypted files to contain false information or even malware.

If a victim decrypts the directory and opens any of the files, malware or even just an HTML file could be used to exfiltrate plaintext or even compromise the system. What happens if there are quotes in the encrypted email?

Quotes in the plaintext might end the URL that is used to exfiltrate the plaintext so that either the bytes after the quote are not exfiltrated or that the exploit may not work at all. If one part contains quotes then only the residual plaintext bytes in that part are missing.

There is a whole zoo of techniques that the attacker can use to exfiltrate the full plaintext despite these technical obstacles. These technologies offer message authenticity and protection against email sender spoofing.

There is an ongoing work on two new email security standards. Both considered countermeasures presented in our paper. It proposes AEAD protected data packets and mentions that the implementation should not allow users to access erroneous data.

What is at the end of a research paper

Responsible Disclosure We have responsibly disclosed our findings to the affected vendors who have applied or are in the process of applying countermeasures.

Please note that in general these countermeasures are specific hotfixes and we cannot rule out that extended attacks with further backchannels or exfiltrations will be found.


After the disclosure, bypasses were indeed published for Thunderbird and Apple Mail. Moreover, even if all backchannels are closed, both standards are still vulnerable to attacks where the attacker can modify email content or inject malicious code into attachments which get executed in a context beyond email client.

They forwarded all the relevant information to other CERTs and companies. We disclosed our attacks to the GnuPG developers on the 24th of November Further clients are listed below.Appendices are always supplementary to the research paper.

As such, your study must be able to stand alone without the appendices, and the paper must contain all information including tables, diagrams, and results necessary to understand the research problem.


A listing of psychological research being conducted online. vetconnexx.com is the enterprise IT professional's guide to information technology resources.

What is at the end of a research paper

Browse this free online library for the latest technical white papers, webcasts and product information to help you make intelligent IT product purchasing decisions. The end is an important component of any research paper.

Conclusion should connect all key elements of information offering the definitive outlook. The end must satisfy the . Type or paste a DOI name into the text box.

Papers by the End-of-Life Care Consensus Panel | End of Life Care | ACP

Click Go. Your browser will take you to a Web page (URL) associated with that DOI name. Send questions or comments to doi. Guides for Citing Sources. American Psychological Association (APA) citation style from the Purdue OWL; Modern Language Association (MLA) citation style from the Purdue OWL; Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) online.

RePEc: Research Papers in Economics