The transition from an agricultural to an industrial economy took more than a century in the United States, but that long development entered its first phase from the s through the s. The Industrial Revolution had begun in Britain during the midth century, but the American colonies lagged far behind the mother country in part because the abundance of land and scarcity of labor in the New World reduced interest in expensive investments in machine production. Nevertheless, with the shift from hand-made to machine-made products a new era of human experience began where increased productivity created a much higher standard of living than had ever been known in the pre-industrial world.
History of the United States Industrialization and reform The industrial growth that began in the United States in the early 's continued steadily up to and through the American Civil War.
Still, by the end of the war, the typical American industry was small. Hand labour remained widespread, limiting the production capacity of industry.
Most businesses served a small market and lacked the capital needed for business expansion. After the Civil War, however, American industry changed dramatically.
Machines replaced hand labour as the main means of manufacturing, increasing the production capacity of industry tremendously.
A new nationwide network of railways distributed goods far and wide. Inventors developed new products the public wanted, and businesses made the products in large quantities.
Investors and bankers supplied the huge amounts of money that business leaders needed to expand their operations. The industrial growth had major effects on American life.
The new business activity centred on cities. As a result, people moved to cities in record numbers, and the cities grew by leaps and bounds.
The sharp contrast between the rich and the poor and other features of American life stirred widespread discontent. The discontent triggered new reform movements.
The industrial growth centred chiefly on the North. The war-torn South lagged behind the rest of the country economically. In the West, frontier life was ending.
American society was in transition. Immigrants arriving from southern and eastern Europe, from Asia, Mexico, and Central America, were creating a new American mosaic. And the power of Anglo-Saxon Protestants--once so dominant--began to wane. History of the United States Industrialization and reform () The industrial growth that began in the United States in the early 's continued steadily up to and through the American Civil War. Still, by the end of the war, the typical American industry was small. The American Industrial Revolution began in the years and decades following the end of the Civil War. As the nation re-solidified its bonds, American entrepreneurs were building on the advancements made in .
America's role in foreign affairs also changed during the late 's and early 's. The country built up its military strength and became a world power.
The rise of big business The value of goods produced by American industry increased almost tenfold between and Many interrelated developments contributed to this growth. The use of machines in manufacturing spread throughout American industry after the Civil War.
With machines, workers could produce goods many times faster than they could by hand. The new large manufacturing firms hired hundreds, or even thousands, of workers. Each worker was assigned a specific job in the production process.
This system of organizing labourers, called the division of labour, also sped up production. Development of new products. Inventors created, and business leaders produced and sold, a variety of new products.
The products included the typewriterbarbed wirethe telephonethe phonograph early form of record playerthe electric lightand the petrol-engine car America's rich and varied natural resources played a key role in the rise of big business.
The nation's abundant water supply helped power the industrial machines. Forests provided timber for construction and wooden products.
Miners took large quantities of coal and iron ore from the ground.Between and , industrialization and urbanization expanded in the United States faster than ever before.
Industrialization, meaning manufacturing in factory settings using machines plus a labor force with unique, divided tasks to increase production, stimulated urbanization, meaning the growth of cities in both population and physical size.
History of the United States Industrialization and reform () The industrial growth that began in the United States in the early 's continued steadily up to and through the American Civil War.
Still, by the end of the war, the typical American industry was small. American society was in transition. Immigrants arriving from southern and eastern Europe, from Asia, Mexico, and Central America, were creating a new American mosaic. And the power of Anglo-Saxon Protestants--once so dominant--began to wane.
The Rise of American Industry. Some have called Sam Slater's mill the birthplace of the American Industrial Revolution. During the first 30 years of the s, American Industry was truly born.
Household manufacturing was almost universal in colonial . The early technological and industrial development in the United States was facilitated by a unique confluence of geographical, social, and economic factors. The relative lack of workers kept United States wages nearly always higher than corresponding British and European workers and provided an incentive to mechanize some tasks.
OAH Talking History. See how this unit aligns with your state standards. Industrializing America. The changes brought about by industrialization and immigration gave rise to the labor movement and the emergence of women's organizations advocating industrial reforms.