Flynn effect Since the early 20th century, raw scores on IQ tests have increased in most parts of the world. The phenomenon of rising raw score performance means if test-takers are scored by a constant standard scoring rule, IQ test scores have been rising at an average rate of around three IQ points per decade. Flynnthe author who did the most to bring this phenomenon to the attention of psychologists.
Autism spectrum disorder ASD. ADDM surveillance is conducted in two phases. The first phase involves review and abstraction of comprehensive evaluations that were completed by professional service providers in the community.
Staff completing record review and abstraction receive extensive training and supervision and are evaluated according to strict reliability standards to certify effective initial training, identify ongoing training needs, and ensure adherence to the prescribed methodology.
Record review and abstraction occurs in a variety of data sources ranging from general pediatric health clinics to specialized programs serving children with developmental disabilities.
In addition, most of the ADDM sites also review records for children who have received special education services in public schools. In the second phase of the study, all abstracted information is reviewed systematically by experienced clinicians to determine ASD case status.
A child is considered to meet the surveillance case definition for ASD if he or she displays behaviors, as described on one or more comprehensive evaluations completed by community-based professional providers, consistent with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for autistic disorder; pervasive developmental disorder—not otherwise specified PDD-NOS, including atypical autism ; or Asperger disorder.
Children meeting this new surveillance case definition could qualify on the basis of one or both of the following criteria, as documented in abstracted comprehensive evaluations: Stratified comparisons of the number of children meeting either of these two case definitions also are reported.
Overall ASD prevalence estimates varied among sites, from Males were four times more likely than females to be identified with ASD. Prevalence estimates were higher for non-Hispanic white henceforth, white children compared with non-Hispanic black henceforth, black children, and both groups were more likely to be identified with ASD compared with Hispanic children.
Findings from the ADDM Network, on the basis of data reported from 11 sites, provide updated population-based estimates of the prevalence of ASD among children aged 8 years in multiple communities in the United States. The overall ASD prevalence estimate of Because the ADDM sites do not provide a representative sample of the entire United States, the combined prevalence estimates presented in this report cannot be generalized to all children aged 8 years in the United States.
Consistent with reports from previous ADDM surveillance years, findings from were marked by variation in ASD prevalence when stratified by geographic area, sex, and level of intellectual ability.
Differences in prevalence estimates between black and white children have diminished in most sites, but remained notable for Hispanic children. Although the DSM-IV-TR case definition will eventually be phased out, it will be applied in a limited geographic area to offer additional data for comparison.
With prevalence of ASD ranging from Top Introduction Autism spectrum disorder ASD is a developmental disability defined by diagnostic criteria that include deficits in social communication and social interaction, and the presence of restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities that can persist throughout life 1.
The first CDC study, which was based on an investigation in Brick Township, New Jersey 2identified similar characteristics but higher prevalence of ASD compared with other studies of that era.
The second CDC study, which was conducted in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia 3identified a lower prevalence of ASD compared with the Brick Township study but similar estimates compared with other prevalence studies of that era.
Tracking the prevalence of ASD poses unique challenges because of the heterogeneity in symptom presentation, lack of biologic diagnostic markers, and changing diagnostic criteria 5. Initial signs and symptoms typically are apparent in the early developmental period; however, social deficits and behavioral patterns might not be recognized as symptoms of ASD until a child is unable to meet social, educational, occupational, or other important life stage demands 1.
Features of ASD might overlap with or be difficult to distinguish from those of other psychiatric disorders, as described extensively in DSM-5 1. To reduce the influence of these factors on prevalence estimates, the ADDM Network has consistently tracked ASD by applying a surveillance case definition of ASD and using the same record-review methodology and behaviorally defined case inclusion criteria since 5.
The observed increase in ASD prevalence underscores the need for continued surveillance using consistent methods to monitor the changing prevalence of ASD and characteristics of children with ASD in the population.Substantial evidence from animal research and a growing number of studies in humans indicate that marijuana exposure during development can cause long .
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