We now know that fish are able to return to their spawning grounds by following the earth's magnetic lines or force, in the same way that birds do. Similar results have shown up lately, in beetles, crickets, bees, grasshoppers and flies. The magnetic sense is so strong in many insects that they will rest only in definite "magnetic positions". It wasn't long ago that an astute gardener discovered he could rid his fields of cabbage moths by scattering magnet fragments among the plants.
When available, academic and peer-reviewed publications, scholarly monographs, and textbooks are usually the most reliable sources.
However, some scholarly material may be outdated, in competition with alternative theories, or controversial within the relevant field. Try to cite current scholarly consensus when available, recognizing that this is often absent.
Reliable non-academic sources may also be used in articles about scholarly issues, particularly material from high-quality mainstream publications.
Deciding which sources are appropriate depends on context. Material should be attributed in-text where sources disagree. For example, a paper reviewing existing research, a review article, monograph, or textbook is often better than a primary research paper.
When relying on primary sources, extreme caution is advised: Wikipedians should never interpret the content of primary sources for themselves. No original research and Wikipedia: Neutral point of view. Material such as an article, book, monograph, or research paper that has been vetted by the scholarly community is regarded as reliable, where the material has been published in reputable peer-reviewed sources or by well-regarded academic presses.
Completed dissertations or theses written as part of the requirements for a doctorate, and which are publicly available most via interlibrary loan or from Proquestcan be used but care should be exercised, as they are often, in part, primary sources. Some of them will have gone through a process of academic peer reviewing, of varying levels of rigor, but some will not.
If possible, use theses that have been cited in the literature; supervised by recognized specialists in the field; or reviewed by third parties. Dissertations in progress have not been vetted and are not regarded as published and are thus not reliable sources as a rule.
Some theses are later published in the form of scholarly monographs or peer reviewed articles, and, if available, these are usually preferable to the original thesis as sources. Masters dissertations and theses are considered reliable only if they can be shown to have had significant scholarly influence.
One can confirm that discussion of the source has entered mainstream academic discourse by checking the scholarly citations it has received in citation indexes. A corollary is that journals not included in a citation index, especially in fields well covered by such indexes, should be used with caution, though whether it is appropriate to use will depend on the context.
Isolated studies are usually considered tentative and may change in the light of further academic research. If the isolated study is a primary source, it should generally not be used if there are secondary sources that cover the same content.
The reliability of a single study depends on the field. Avoid undue weight when using single studies in such fields.
Studies relating to complex and abstruse fields, such as medicineare less definitive and should be avoided. Secondary sources, such as meta-analysestextbooks, and scholarly review articles are preferred when available, so as to provide proper context. Care should be taken with journals that exist mainly to promote a particular point of view.
A claim of peer review is not an indication that the journal is respected, or that any meaningful peer review occurs. Journals that are not peer reviewed by the wider academic community should not be considered reliable, except to show the views of the groups represented by those journals.
They simply publish whatever is submitted if the author is willing to pay a fee. Some go so far as to mimic the names of established journals see hijacked journals. If you are unsure about the quality of a journal, check that the editorial board is based in a respected accredited universityand that it is included in the relevant high-quality citation index —be wary of indexes that merely list almost all publications, and do not vet the journals they list.
News reporting from less-established outlets is generally considered less reliable for statements of fact. The agency should be cited in addition to the newspaper that reprinted it.
Editorial commentary, analysis and opinion pieceswhether written by the editors of the publication editorials or outside authors op-eds are reliable primary sources for statements attributed to that editor or authorbut are rarely reliable for statements of fact. Human interest reporting is generally not as reliable as news reporting, and may not be subject to the same rigorous standards of fact-checking and accuracy see junk food news.
The opinions of specialists and recognized experts are more likely to be reliable and to reflect a significant viewpoint.Aug 13, · Laura Ingraham's claim that "most of us don't like" America's "massive demographic changes" is continuing to reverberate.
I'm surprised there hasn't been more talk of an advertiser backlash.
A design blog about living a stylish life and transforming the so-so. (Third edition) by Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig.
The leading textbook in Artificial Intelligence. Used in over universities in over countries. The 22nd most cited. computer science publication on Citeseer (and 4th most cited publication of this century). Research that consists of collecting and organizing material from existing sources within the provisions of this and other content policies is fundamental to writing an encyclopedia.
PRIMARY SOURCES • Landmark Documents • Court Cases • Supreme Court Cases • Newspaper Articles • Obituaries VOICES • Overview & Resources • Asian American • Children • Civil Rights • Immigrant • Native Americans • Texas • Women MULTIMEDIA • Digital Stories.
Wikipedia articles should be based on reliable, published sources, making sure that all majority and significant minority views that have appeared in those sources are covered (see Wikipedia:Neutral point of view).If no reliable sources can be found on a topic, Wikipedia should not have an article on it.
The guideline in this page discusses the reliability of various types of sources.