We developed open-ended probes for each domain.
Advanced Search Abstract The use of both quantitative and qualitative strategies to examine a single research question has been a subject of considerable controversy and still remains a largely uncommon practice in the sociology of health and illness.
Yet, when seeking to understand the meaning of a chronic disabling condition in later life from a social psychological perspective, a mixed-method approach is likely to provide the most comprehensive picture.
This article provides an overview of the usefulness and appropriateness of a mixed-method approach to understanding the stroke experience. I comment on the current state of research on the experience of stroke, including epistemological and ontological orientations.
Using real data examples, I address paradigmatic assumptions, methods of integration, as well as challenges and pitfalls in integrating methods. I conclude by considering future directions in this field of research.
Although the proportion of people affected by stroke is relatively small, the impact of a stroke on the lives of survivors and their caregivers is substantial. In this article, I review research to date that aims to understand the experience of stroke. I first Mixed method research manuscript an overview of the literature based on quantitative methods such as survey techniquesand then, I review the information gleaned from qualitative studies of stroke.
I Mixed method research manuscript that a more complete understanding of the stroke experience can be gained by integrating both quantitative and qualitative methods within a mixed-method research agenda.
Strategies and techniques for integrating methods and the challenges and pitfalls in this process are discussed. The Impact of Stroke on Well-being Because a stroke results from cerebral ischemia death of brain cellsthe resulting impairments can have a widespread impact on the level of functioning of the body.
Survivors may suddenly be left with paralysis or weakness in their arms or legs, memory problems, visual impairment including cortical blindnessloss of sensation in or awareness of one side of the body, difficulty swallowing, and difficulty in understanding what is said and in finding words to communicate with others.
Individuals may also become emotionally labile after a stroke, with sudden outbursts of crying or rage for no apparent reason. Personality changes may also occur. Individuals with strokes in the left hemisphere of the brain often adopt a slow, cautious behavioral style, whereas those with lesions in the right hemisphere of the brain can become uncharacteristically impulsive.
In my work with stroke survivors, I met former athletes who were suddenly struggling to walk. I met people who could no longer speak or read. For several weeks following a stroke, one woman was convinced that her left arm belonged to someone else.
I interviewed one woman whose stroke had strangely impaired her ability to recognize faces, which posed a significant problem for her in social interaction. I spoke with a retired professor who suffered severe depression because his stroke had thwarted his plans to write his memoirs. The analytic units therefore become variables, which are analyzed descriptively or in a hypothesis-testing framework Bryman, Yet, the documentation of such associations does not explain the underlying reasons why a stroke compromises well-being.
What are the reasons why impaired mobility or dependence in activities of daily living, for example, are associated with a reduced sense of subjective well-being? Moreover, quantitative results tend to emphasize aggregate relationships that are derived from the average associations between variables in a study population e.
As a result, deviations from these associations are not emphasized, even though the relationship between functional status and well-being is not perfectly correlated.
In their review of patient outcomes following illness, Wilson and Cleary point out that there is not a direct one-to-one correlation between severity of functional limitations and well-being.
Quantitative studies are therefore not well equipped to help us understand the often paradoxical observation that some people are emotionally devastated by stroke-related impairments, whereas others manage to retain their sense of well-being in the face of declining function.
Why are some people distraught by the inability to walk, for example, whereas others seem to retain their sense of well-being even when confined to a wheelchair?
The answers to such questions are not accessible in quantitative data. In order to understand these complexities, we need to turn to qualitative methods. Qualitative Studies of the Stroke Experience Perhaps because of its all-encompassing effects on one's ability to function in basic ways, considerable insight into the human experience of a stroke can be gained through a subjective research method.
Qualitative research focuses on the complexities of how human beings make sense of their experiences.
Implicit in this approach is that there are multiple subjective realities, which are constantly in flux. In contrast to the quantitative survey method, therefore, qualitative data are typically collected through in-depth interviews, focus groups, or participant observation, which are better able to capture the subjective dynamics of individual experience.
Transcripts are examined for concepts or themes using codes to identify and label them Luborsky, In contrast to quantitative methods, therefore, patterns replace variables as the unit of analysis.
For example, in a 5-year descriptive study of stroke survivors, Becker discovered that people described their stroke experience based on the loss of their own subjective definitions of what was meaningful to them. Expanding on this concept, Charmaz, Kaufman aband Corbin and Strauss proposed that the impact of a chronic disabling condition on subjective well-being is largely a function of the extent to which disabilities affect social roles or aspects of self that constitute salient components of an individual's identity.
Using participant observation and open-ended interviews, Kaufman b found that the poststroke experience was largely an exercise in reestablishing a sense of identity.
She noted that individuals searched for ways to build links between their new poststroke lives and their former selves. As Beckerp. Moreover, qualitative results are not able to tell us how many survivors experience mobility restrictions or decreased well-being, nor is it possible to quantify the relative effect of different impairments on well-being.
Qualitative and quantitative approaches therefore have made separate each substantively important contributions to our understanding of the stroke experience.
But because these approaches are typically conducted in different studies, our understanding of stroke relies on research developed from two separate methodologies.This paper highlighted the critical debate on choice of paradigm in educational research in order to claim new knowledge exploring signature literature on explanatory sequential mixed method design as the third research community of knowledge claim.
METHOD. This is an experiential report based on a doctoral nursing mixed method thesis with its main objective to elaborate an interpretative model of shared governance of the nursing professional practice in a hospital environment.
7 The manuscript is organized in three parts. Mixed methods research in biomedical and health services research: approaches and illustrations Mixed methods can be useful in pursuing a broad range of focal topics and study aims in the biomedical and health services research arenas, including but not limited to clinical or careful matching of the method to the research question of.
Abstract A Mixed Methods Analysis and Evaluation of the Mixed Methods Research Literature in Engineering EducationMixed methods research is still emerging as an accepted and rigorous method . Journal of Mixed Methods Research Editors Manfred Max Bergman, Universität Basel, Switzerland Donna M.
Mertens, Gallaudet University, Washington D.C., U.S.A. manuscripts are generally reviewed by three scholars, at least one of which serves on the JMMR editorial board. The journal aims to have each manuscript . In Part 4, mixed method designs, data analysis and writing up one’s findings into a research manuscript are covered.
The book closes with a discussion of multicultural counseling issues in research.