Abbreviationswhich includes all abbreviations and acronyms used in the Factbook, with their expansions. Acronyms An acronym is an abbreviation coined from the initial letter of each successive word in a term or phrase. In general, an acronym made up of more than the first letter of the major words in the expanded form is rendered with only an initial capital letter Comsat from Communications Satellite Corporation; an exception would be NAM from Nonaligned Movement. Administrative divisions This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names BGN.
Torture Memos After he left the Department of Justice, it was revealed that Yoo had written legal opinions, including co-writing the Torture Memo of August 1,that narrowly defined torture and American habeas corpus obligations.
They authorized what were called enhanced interrogation techniques and were issued to the CIA. Most actions that fall under the international definition did not fall within this new definition advocated by the U.
Several top military lawyers, including Alberto J. Morareported that policies allowing methods equivalent to torture were developed in the highest levels of the administration.
Lawyers within the Department of Defense worked internally to circumvent those policies and instead mandate non-coercive interrogation standards, but were not successful.
During the debate, Cassel asked Yoo, 'If the President deems that he's got to torture somebody, including by crushing the testicles of the person's child, there is no law that can stop him?
Fourth Amendment to the United States ConstitutionNSA electronic surveillance programand NSA warrantless surveillance controversy Yoo also authored the October 23, memo asserting that the President had sufficient power to allow the NSA to monitor the communications of US citizens on US soil without a warrant known as the warrantless wiretap program because the Fourth Amendment does not apply.
Or, as another memo says in a footnote, "Our office recently concluded that the Fourth Amendment had no application to domestic military operations. He says that the President, and not the Congress or courts, has sole authority to interpret international treaties such as the Geneva Conventions "because treaty interpretation is a key feature of the conduct of foreign affairs".
In an opinion piece in the WSJ, he criticized the Clinton administration for misusing the privilege to protect the personal, rather than official, activities of the President, such as in the Monica Lewinsky affair. He suggested that Presidents could act in conflict with the Supreme Court, but that such measures were justified only during emergencies.
He said it undermined "democratic accountability and respect for the law".
He then criticized Democrats in Congress for not suing Clinton as they had sued presidents Bush and Reagan to stop the use of force abroad.
Bush administration[ edit ] Following his tenure as an appointee of the George W. Bush AdministrationYoo criticized certain views on the separation of powers doctrine as allegedly being historically inaccurate and problematic for the global war on terrorism.
For instance, he wrote, We are used to a peacetime system in which Congress enacts the laws, the president enforces them, and the courts interpret them. In wartime, the gravity shifts to the executive branch. Bush is a 'King George' bent on an "imperial presidency". But the inescapable fact is that war shifts power to the branch most responsible for its waging: Kaleck acted on behalf of 11 alleged victims of torture and other human rights abuses, as well as about 30 human rights activists and organizations.
That, after all, is the teaching of United States v. General Mukasey, just following orders is no defense! The list was a direct response to the so-called Magnitsky list revealed by the United States the day before.
The trial heard "harrowing witness accounts from victims of torture who suffered at the hands of US soldiers and contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan".
White allowed the suit to proceed, rejecting all but one of Yoo's immunity claims. Padilla's lawyer says White's ruling could have a broad effect for all detainees. The Padilla complaint, on page 20, cited Goldsmith's book The Terror Presidency in support of its case.
In it Goldsmith had claimed that the legal analysis in Yoo's torture memoranda was incorrect and that there was widespread opposition to the memoranda among some lawyers in the Justice Department.
Padilla's attorney used this information in the lawsuit, saying that Yoo caused Padilla's damages by authorizing his alleged torture by his memoranda. On May 2,the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals held that Yoo had qualified immunity at the time of his memos —because certain issues had not then been settled legally by the U.
Based on the Supreme Court's decision in Ashcroft v.Even though an informative essay is one of the simplest types of academic writing, it is still important to read helpful tips and tricks on how to research and write it.
Your result depends drastically on your understanding of the format. Get the main idea behind this task and pick one of the most relevant topics. Australasian Legal Information Institute (AustLII), a joint facility of UTS and UNSW Faculties of Law.
Jun 20, · How to Write a Letter to a Judge. In this Article: Article Summary Setting out the Letter Writing the Content of the Letter Community Q&A There are occasions when you may find it pertinent to write a letter to a judge.
You may believe that what you have to say can impact how a judge approaches the task of sentencing someone you know. Mar 20, · This page last updated on March 20, Content Manager: [email protected] Technical Issues: E-mail OER Webmaster.
Aug 04, · How to Write an Affidavit. In this Article: Article Summary Including the Basics Writing the Statement Sample Affidavit Community Q&A An affidavit is a written statement that has been notarized. If you need an affidavit for a court case or other legal reasons, preparing one is easy if you know the guidelines.
- Henry Waldock Book. My publisher collected many of the more frequently-used chapters of my books into a single (cheaper) paperback edition: "Common Canadian Criminal Code Offences and Procedures ".Some of you may find it useful.