Therefore, science is about gaining knowledge either through observing, studying, experience, or practice.
Redshift and the Doppler effect At about the same time, an Austrian physicist by the name of Christian Doppler was studying astronomy and mathematics. Doppler knew that light behaved like a wave, and so began to think about how the movement of stars might affect the light emitted from those stars.
He made an analogy to a ship at sail on the ocean, Essay scientific knowledge how the ship would encounter waves on the surface of the water at a faster rate and thus higher frequency if it were sailing into the waves than if it were traveling in the same direction as the waves.
You might be familiar with the frequency shift, which we now call the Doppler Effect in his honor, if you have ever listened to the sound of traffic while standing on the Essay scientific knowledge of the road.
The familiar high-to-low pitch change is an example of the effect — the actual frequency of the waves emitted is not changing, but the speed of the passing vehicle affects how quickly those waves reach you.
Doppler proposed that we would see the same effect on any stars that were moving: Their color would shift towards the red end of the spectrum if they were moving away from Earth called a redshift and towards the blue end of the spectrum if they were moving closer called a blueshift see Figure 4.
He expected to be able to see this shift in binary starsor pairs of stars that orbit around each other. However, at the time, telescopes were not sensitive enough to confirm the shift he proposed.
A representation of how the perceived spectrum of light emitted from a galaxy is affected by its motion Click to see additional information in larger version. By the early s, technology finally caught up with Doppler and more powerful telescopes could be used to test his ideas. In September ofan American named Vesto Slipher had just completed his undergraduate degree in mechanics and astronomy at Indiana University.
He got a job as a temporary assistant at the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, while continuing his graduate work at Indiana. After a few months of problems and trouble-shooting, Slipher was able to take spectrograms of Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn.
Like Doppler, he was interested in studying the spectra of binary starsand he began to do so in his spare time at the observatory. In particular, Slipher focused his attention on stars within spiral nebulae Figure 5expecting to find that the shift seen in the spectra of the stars would indicate that the galaxies those stars belonged to were rotating.
Indeed, he is credited with determining that galaxies rotate, and was able to determine the velocities at which they rotate. But inhaving studied 15 different nebulae, he announced a curious discovery at a meeting of the American Astronomical Society in August: In the great majority of cases the nebulae are receding; the largest velocities are all positive The striking preponderance of the positive sign indicates a general fleeing from us or the Milky Way.
Slipher had found that most galaxies showed a redshift in their spectrumindicating that they were all moving away from us in space, or receding Slipher, By measuring the magnitude of the redshift, he was able to determine the recessional velocity or the speed at which objects were "fleeing.
Several years earlier, Einstein had published his general theory of relativity Einstein, In formulating the theory, Einstein had encountered one significant problem: General relativity predicted that the universe had to be either contracting or expanding — it did not allow for a static universe.
But a contracting or expanding universe could not be eternal, while a static, non-moving universe could, and the prevailing cultural belief at the time was that the universe was eternal. Einstein was strongly influenced by his cultural surroundings. As a result, he invented a "fudge factor," which he called the cosmological constantthat would allow the theory of general relativity to be consistent with a static universe.
But science is not a democracy or plutocracy; it is neither the most common or most popular conclusion that becomes accepted, but rather the conclusion that stands up to the test of evidence over time.
Comprehension Checkpoint Scientists are not influenced by their personal experiences, their beliefs, or the culture of which they are a part.In the earlier days, the concept of gravity was largely unproven and more heretical dogma than it was scientific knowledge. We will write a custom essay sample on Scientific knowledge specifically for you.
Man uses science in various ways. He has applied it to his day-to-day work with great advantage. But he has not been satisfied with its useful applications alone.
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words. 1 page. An Analysis of Scientific Knowledge by an French Scientist by the Name of Louis Pasteur. words. 1 page. In this essay the paradoxes and difficulties associated with the ongoing debate between ‘Indigenous Knowledge’ and scientific knowledge will be thoroughly discussed.
An attempt will be made to take a stand and decide whether ‘Indigenous Knowledge’ and ‘Scientific Knowledge’ should have distinct boundaries or whether they are able to co-exist successfully. Scientific knowledge refers to laws and theories that are generalized and which use scientific methods to explain a phenomenon or behavioral interest.
Scientific method is a series of steps that can be employed in or. A perfect example is the existence of gravity. In the earlier days, the concept of gravity was largely unproven and more heretical dogma than it was scientific knowledge.