You can read this article in Romanian herethanks to Andrea Boabes!
Exposure leads to immunological memory Found in nearly all forms of life Found only in jawed vertebrates Both innate and adaptive immunity depend on the ability of the immune system to distinguish between self and non-self molecules.
In immunology, self molecules are those components of an organism's body that can be distinguished from foreign substances by the immune system. One class of non-self molecules are called antigens short for antibody generators and are defined as substances that bind to specific immune receptors and elicit an immune response.
Innate immune system Microorganisms or toxins that successfully enter an organism encounter the cells and mechanisms of the innate immune system. The innate response is usually triggered when microbes are identified by pattern recognition receptorswhich recognize components that are conserved among broad groups of microorganisms,  or when damaged, injured or stressed cells send out alarm signals, many of which but not all are recognized by the same receptors as those that recognize pathogens.
The innate immune system is the dominant system of host defense in most organisms. The waxy cuticle of most leavesthe exoskeleton of insectsthe shells and membranes of externally deposited eggsand skin are examples of mechanical barriers that are the first line of defense against infection.
In the lungs, coughing and sneezing mechanically eject pathogens and other irritants from the respiratory tract.
The flushing action of tears and urine also mechanically expels pathogens, while mucus secreted by the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract serves to trap and entangle microorganisms. Within the genitourinary and gastrointestinal tracts, commensal flora serve as biological barriers by competing with pathogenic bacteria for food and space and, in some cases, by changing the conditions in their environment, such as pH or available iron.
However, since most antibiotics non-specifically target bacteria and do not affect fungi, oral antibiotics can lead to an "overgrowth" of fungi and cause conditions such as a vaginal candidiasis a yeast infection.
Inflammation Inflammation is one of the first responses of the immune system to infection. Inflammation is produced by eicosanoids and cytokineswhich are released by injured or infected cells. Eicosanoids include prostaglandins that produce fever and the dilation of blood vessels associated with inflammation, and leukotrienes that attract certain white blood cells leukocytes.
These cytokines and other chemicals recruit immune cells to the site of infection and promote healing of any damaged tissue following the removal of pathogens. Complement system The complement system is a biochemical cascade that attacks the surfaces of foreign cells. It contains over 20 different proteins and is named for its ability to "complement" the killing of pathogens by antibodies.
Complement is the major humoral component of the innate immune response. This recognition signal triggers a rapid killing response. After complement proteins initially bind to the microbe, they activate their protease activity, which in turn activates other complement proteases, and so on.
This produces a catalytic cascade that amplifies the initial signal by controlled positive feedback.
This deposition of complement can also kill cells directly by disrupting their plasma membrane. One can see red blood cellsseveral knobby white blood cells including lymphocytesa monocytea neutrophiland many small disc-shaped platelets.
Leukocytes white blood cells act like independent, single-celled organisms and are the second arm of the innate immune system. These cells identify and eliminate pathogens, either by attacking larger pathogens through contact or by engulfing and then killing microorganisms.
Phagocytes generally patrol the body searching for pathogens, but can be called to specific locations by cytokines. The pathogen is killed by the activity of digestive enzymes or following a respiratory burst that releases free radicals into the phagolysosome.
During the acute phase of inflammation, particularly as a result of bacterial infection, neutrophils migrate toward the site of inflammation in a process called chemotaxis, and are usually the first cells to arrive at the scene of infection.
Macrophages are versatile cells that reside within tissues and produce a wide array of chemicals including enzymes, complement proteinsand cytokines, while they can also act as scavengers that rid the body of worn-out cells and other debris, and as antigen-presenting cells that activate the adaptive immune system.Consequences of Disrupting Biological Rhythms (A2 Psychology Sleep) Essays coincide with seasonal or daily environmental changes.
Most organisms have an internal biological clock called endogenous pacemakers, which are influences by external environmental factors called exogenous zeitgebers, these control periodic changes.
Thats so different though, you were still there for your baby. The basis of most sleep training is leaving them alone to cry. Crying while being supported (while obviously not ideal but has to happen in some cases) doesnt have the same negative effects. May 20, · Discuss research into the disruption of biological rhythms (eg shift work, jet lag).
(8 marks + 16 marks) Rhythms such as the circadian sleep/wake cycle can be disrupted when people work shift patterns or experience jet lag.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against vetconnexx.com function properly, an immune system must detect a wide variety of agents, known as pathogens, from viruses to parasitic worms, and distinguish them from the organism's own healthy vetconnexx.com many species, the immune system can be classified into.
Disruption of Biological Rhythms Jet Lag Jet lag is caused by travelling across time zones so quickly that biological rhythms don't match the external cues, causing sleepiness during the day and restlessness at vetconnexx.com lasts until resynchronization has occurred (usually by following exogenous zeitgebers).
Consequences of Disrupting Biological Rhythms Here's an essay plan on the subject of consequences of disrupting biological rhythms. Use it if you want, I chose these studies/explanations as they had the most information to write about.