This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Plants are among promising and suitable platform systems for production of recombinant biopharmaceutical proteins due to several features such as safety, no need for fermentation, inexpensive investment, and fast and easy scale-up. Human insulin is one of the most widely used medicines in the world. Up to now different expression systems including Escherichia coli, yeast and CHO have been exploited for producing recombinant human insulin and a variety of different recombinant insulin are extensively used.
The strategy for cloning insulin was conceptually straightforward, although not technically easy. First, one had to isolate the messenger RNA from human insulin-producing cells.
This piece of complimentary DNA would only contain information on insulin, unlike DNA isolated from a cell, which would contain information on all the genes in an organism. Finally, this new piece of complimentary DNA was inserted into a new cell. For the new cell, Ulrich used a bacterial cell called E.
If everything worked properly, the E Coli would then start producing human insulin. Every step had significant roadblocks. Isolating the messenger RNA from human insulin producing cells was hindered in two ways.
The challenges here reflected those that the Toronto team faced 50 years before, when they first tried to isolate insulin from the pancreas. The first step was to develop an inhibitor to the RNAse.
Ullrich started to tackle the problem of cloning human insulin by first working on rat insulin. In order to get enough starting material, he needed to use the pancreas from different rats. Once he isolated the rat insulin messenger, he converted it into complementary DNA then inserted it into a new vector a piece of DNA that makes control easier inside of E.
A vector is a kind of standardized wrapper for a cloned gene. By using a vector, one could treat genes as truly interchangeable parts inside of E Coli. Cloning the rat insulin gene was a tremendous accomplishment, but there was a big bump in the road.
Recombinant DNA, moving genes from one organism to another, was a revolutionary technology.
Some feared that this technology could be dangerous. What if someone cloned human insulin gene into E. It has probably been in every human since the origin of the species. Insulin is a protein that only occurs in higher life forms, it had never been found in a bacteria.
If an E Coli strain were artificially produced that made insulin, what would happen if that strain escaped from the laboratory and populated itself in the intestinal tract of a human. Would the human suddenly die of hypoglycemia? Would we be creating a super bug, capable of killing all humans on the planet?
No one knew for sure, but there were knowledgeable people on both sides of these debates.Cloning is the process of creating “a genetic copy of a sequence of DNA or of the entire genome of an organism”(Stanford Encyclopedia). In fact, there are different types of cloning for various purposes, which include, not limited to molecular cloning, reproductive cloning, and embryo cloning.
Cloning and Stem Cell Research S/P: To inform my audience about cloning and cell stem research.
C/I: The benefits and ethical issues of cloning and cell stem research. Introduction Specific purpose: Today I’m going to inform you about “Cloning Technology and Stem Cell Research”. Genetic Engineering Exposition Essay. Year 12 English Studies: Expository Writing Argue the case for or against cloning and genetic engineering.
Advances in technology today have opened the window of opportunities towards curing the ill and abolishing future genetic disadvantages of the next generations. In , Genentech scientist Dennis Kleid toured a factory in Indiana where insulin was being made from pigs and cattle.
“There was a line of train cars filled with frozen pancreases,” he says. At the time, it took 8, pounds of pancreas glands from 23, animals to make one pound of insulin. Feb 20, · This study reports the cloning, transformation and expression of proinsulin gene in tomato plants.
Specific primers were designed and used for PCR amplification and cloning of the proinsulin gene in the plant expression vector pCAMBIA This recombinant insulin, or insulin made by combining DNA from multiple sources (humans and bacteria), is now the primary treatment used by type I diabetics.
There are several areas of genetic engineering for example genetic engineering of animals, crops, embryos, human cells and cloning. Cloning a human performed by taking genetic materials from one or more human and genetically engineering them into the genes of another human, the first mammal to be cloned is Dolly the sheep. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease that immune self-reactive T cells damage the insulin producing pancreatic β-cell (1, 2) and cause insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia and long-term medical complications such as neuropathy, retinopathy and kidney failures. In , Genentech scientist Dennis Kleid toured a factory in Indiana where insulin was being made from pigs and cattle. “There was a line of train cars filled with frozen pancreases,” he says. At the time, it took 8, pounds of pancreas glands from 23, animals to make one pound of insulin.
Steps of DNA cloning DNA cloning is used for many purposes.