The American civil rights movement came to a head under the Johnson administration. Many had seen the March on Washington in August as the apotheosis of the nonviolent struggle for civil rights. Somepeople had come from all over the… Abolitionism to Jim Crow American history has been marked by persistent and determined efforts to expand the scope and inclusiveness of civil rights.
Forty-nine of us, forty-eight men and one woman, lay on the green waiting for the spike to open. We were too tired to talk much. We just sprawled about exhaustedly, with home-made cigarettes sticking out of our scrubby faces. Overhead the chestnut branches were covered with blossom, and beyond that great woolly clouds floated almost motionless in a clear sky.
Littered on the grass, we seemed dingy, urban riff-raff. We defiled the scene, like sardine-tins and paper bags on the seashore. What talk there was ran on the Tramp Major of this spike.
He was a devil, everyone agreed, a tartar, a tyrant, a bawling, blasphemous, uncharitable dog. When You, came to be searched, he fair held you upside down and shook you.
If you were caught with tobacco there was bell to. Pay, and if you went in with money which is against the law God help you. I had eightpence on me. Then we set about smuggling our matches and tobacco, for it is forbidden to take these into nearly all spikes, and one is supposed to surrender them at the gate.
We hid them in our socks, except for the twenty or so per cent who had no socks, and had to carry the tobacco in their boots, even under their very toes. We stuffed our ankles with contraband until anyone seeing us might have imagined an outbreak of elephantiasis. But is an unwritten law that even the sternest Tramp Majors do not search below the knee, and in the end only one man was caught.
This was Scotty, a little hairy tramp with a bastard accent sired by cockney out of Glasgow. His tin of cigarette ends fell out of his sock at the wrong moment, and was impounded.
At six, the gates swung open and we shuffled in. An official at the gate entered our names and other particulars in the register and took our bundles away from us. The woman was sent off to the workhouse, and we others into the spike.
It was a gloomy, chilly, limewashed place, consisting only of a bathroom and dining-room and about a hundred narrow stone cells.
The terrible Tramp Major met us at the door and herded us into the bathroom to be stripped and searched. He was a gruff, soldierly man of forty, who gave the tramps no more ceremony than sheep at the dipping-pond, shoving them this way and that and shouting oaths in their faces.
But when he came to myself, he looked hard at me, and said: He gave me another long look. It was a disgusting sight, that bathroom.
All the indecent secrets of our underwear were exposed; the grime, the rents and patches, the bits of string doing duty for buttons, the layers upon layers of fragmentary garments, some of them mere collections of holes, held together by dirt.
The room became a press of steaming nudity, the sweaty odours of the tramps competing with the sickly, sub-faecal stench native to the spike. Each of us had three minutes in which to bathe himself. Six greasy, slippery roller towels had to serve for the lot of us.
When we had bathed our own clothes were taken away from us, and we were dressed in the workhouse shirts, grey cotton things like nightshirts, reaching to the middle of the thigh.
Then we were sent into the dining-room, where supper was set out on the deal tables. It was the invariable spike meal, always the same, whether breakfast, dinner or supper—half a pound of bread, a bit of margarine, and a pint of so-called tea. It took us five minutes to gulp down the cheap, noxious food.
Then the Tramp Major served us with three cotton blankets each, and drove us off to our cells for the night. The doors were locked on the outside a little before seven in the evening, and would stay locked for the next twelve hours.
The cells measured eight feet by five, and, had no lighting apparatus except a tiny, barred window high up in the wall, and a spyhole in the door. There were no bugs, and we had bedsteads and straw palliasses, rare luxuries both.
In many spikes one sleeps on a wooden shelf, and in some on the bare floor, with a rolled-up coat for pillow. But I did not get it, for there is always something wrong in the spike, and the peculiar shortcoming here, as I discovered immediately, was the cold.
May had begun, and in honour of the season—a little sacrifice to the gods of spring, perhaps—the authorities had cut off the steam from the hot pipes. The cotton blankets were almost useless.The Freedom Rides During February of , students from the University of Sydney organised a group called SAFA.
Their goal was to bring to light the deprived . Content in externally sourced articles is not necessarily the opinion of the Sovereign Union and is included for reference and general information purposes only.
No Sugar by Jack Davis: Exposes the Mistreatment of Australian Aborigines During the 's - Today, in the 20th Century, it is a commonly known fact in Australia, and throughout the rest of the world, that Aborigines were mistreated from since western culture first settled, and for many years after that.
The freedom ride opened the eyes of all Australians to the discrimination against Aboriginal Australia. Despite the efforts of Perkins, without the support of the twenty-eight non-Aboriginal students that toured country towns (Barwick ) the freedom ride would not have been as successful even.
Apr 07, · Australia is made up of six states--New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, and Western Australia--and two territories--the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory. Canberra is the capital of Australia. The Australian and American Freedom Rides This essay briefly discusses the similarities and differences of the ‘Australian and American Freedom Rides’ history.
Throughout the essay, there is a discussion on what the reasons were for the protest of the Freedom Rides.