National Institute of Justice Abstract: This paper examines the crime prevention characteristics of Metro's environment. It sets out a series of tests documenting Metro's success in keeping crime rates on the system at an unusually low level and demonstrating that these low crime rates are explained by Metro's environment.
Explain why males commit more crime than females. Discuss whether social class differences exist in crime rates.
While people from all walks of life commit street crime, some people are still more likely than others to break the law because of their social backgrounds. Despite their inaccuracies, the three data sources discussed in the first section of this chapter all provide a similar picture of what kinds of people, in terms of their social backgrounds, are more or less likely to commit street crime.
We briefly discuss each background in turn. Gender Simply put, males commit much more crime than females. In UCR data, men comprise about 81 percent of all arrests for violent crime and about 63 percent of all arrests for property crime.
In the NCVS, victims report that males commit most of the violent crimes they experienced, and self-report studies find that males far outpace females in the commission of serious street offenses. Data from Federal Bureau of Investigation.
Crime in the United States, The key question is why such a large gender difference exists. Some scholars attribute this difference to biological differences between the sexes, but most criminologists attribute it to sociological factors.
One of these is gender role socialization: Despite greater recognition of gender roles, we continue to raise our boys to be assertive and aggressive, while we raise our girls to be gentle and nurturing Lindsey, A sociological perspective 5th ed.
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Such gender socialization has many effects, and one of these is a large gender difference in criminal behavior. A second factor is opportunity.
Studies find that parents watch their daughters more closely than they watch their sons, who are allowed to stay out later at night and thus have more opportunity to break the law. Males have higher crime rates than females.
An important reason for this gender difference is that boys are socialized to be assertive and aggressive, while girls are socialized to be gentle and nurturing. Offending rates are highest in the late teens and early twenties and decline thereafter. Accordingly, people in the 15—24 age range account for about 40 percent of all arrests even though they comprise only about 14 percent of the population.
Several factors again seem to account for this pattern Shoemaker, An examination of explanations of delinquent behavior 6th ed. For both reasons, our peer relationships during our teens and early twenties are more likely than those in our later years to draw us into crime.
Second, adolescents and young adults are more likely than older adults to lack full-time jobs; for this reason, they are more likely to need money and thus to commit offenses to obtain money and other possessions. Third, as we age out of our early twenties, our ties to conventional society increase: Many people marry, have children, and begin full-time employment, though not necessarily in that order.
The status of criminological theory Vol.
Social Class Findings on social class differences in crime are less clear than they are for gender or age differences. Arrests statistics and much research indicate that poor people are much more likely than wealthier people to commit street crime. However, some scholars attribute the greater arrests of poor people to social class bias against them.
Race, class, and crime. A contemporary handbook 3rd ed.
A theory of the ecology of crime. Thus social class does seem to be associated with street crime, with poor individuals doing more than their fair share. Explanations of this relationship center on the effects of poverty, which, as the next section will discuss further, is said to produce anger, frustration, and economic need and to be associated with a need for respect and with poor parenting skills and other problems that make children more likely to commit antisocial behavior when they reach adolescence and beyond.
These effects combine to lead poor people to be more likely than wealthier people to commit street crime, even if it is true that most poor people do not commit street crime at all.Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet.
An examination of Census data revealed that the groups who make up the bulk of the undocumented population—young, less-educated men born in Mexico, El Salvador, and Guatemala—have significantly lower incarceration rates than similarly situated native-born men.
which are the entry point cities to the United States and often the most. In the United States, tsunami-prone areas are coastal locations along the Pacific Ocean, including the states of California, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and Hawaii.
Tsunamis can be devastating to both life and property, reaching heights of 90 meters ( feet) and traveling upwards of 1, kilometers per hour ( miles per hour), with run-ups. United States v. Darryl Johnson, 4th Cir. () approach to crime prevention has made it an attractive source for federal funding in the USA under the rubric of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED).
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