You begin to notice one day that the computer freezes more frequently, and you continue to have problems. After taking your computer to the engineers, the engineers discover that a few of the small components of the motherboard are faulty, so they decide to replace it. If we compare the act of replacing a computer part with the feat of replacing a faulty organ in our bodies, we can greatly appreciate the idea of interchangeable parts.
Human Cloning Issue 5 John A. Robertson is an attorney who argues that there are many potential benefits of cloning and that a ban on privately funded cloning research is unjustified and that this type of research should only be regulated.
On the flip side of this issue Attorney and medical ethicist George J. Annas argues that cloning devalues people by depriving them of their uniqueness and that a ban should be implemented upon it. Both express valid points and I will critique the articles to better understand their points.
Robertson's article "Human Cloning and the Challenge of Regulation" raises three important reasons on why there shouldn't be a ban on Human Cloning but that it should be regulated.
Couples who are infertile might choose to clone one of the partners instead of using sperm, eggs, or embryo's from anonymous donors. In conventional in vitro fertilization, doctors attempt to start with many ova, fertilize each with sperm and implant all of them in the woman's womb in the hope that one will result in pregnancy.
Robertson But some women can only supply a single egg. Through the use of embryo cloning, that egg might be divisible into, say 8 zygotes for implanting. The chance of those women becoming pregnant would be much greater. Kassirer Secondly, it would benefit a couple at high risk of having offspring with a genetic disease choose weather to risk the birth of an affected child.
Robertson Parents who are known to be at risk of passing a genetic defect to a child could make use of cloning. A fertilized ovum could be cloned, and the duplicate tested for the disease or disorder. If the clone were free of genetic defects, then the other clone would be as well.
Then this could be implanted in the woman and allowed to mature to term. Heyd Thirdly, it would be used to obtain tissue or organs for transplantation. Robertson Cloning could produce a reservoir of "spare parts".
Fertilized ova could be cloned into multiple zygotes; one could be implanted in the woman and allowed to develop into a normal baby; the other zygotes could be frozen for future use. In the event that the child required a bone marrow transplant, one of the zygotes could be taken out of storage, implanted, allowed to mature to a baby and then contribute some of its spare bone marrow to its earlier identical twin.
Bone marrow can be harvested from a person without injuring them. Kearney All three of these points are well documented in medical literature today and will help people greatly.
He then brings up the National Bioethics Advisory Commissions concern about physical safety and eugenics. He also brings up the reasons why cloning humans can be harmful.
Some people have expressed concern about the effects that cloning would have on relationships. For example, a child born from an adult DNA cloning from his father would be, in effect, a delayed twin of one of his parents. That has never happened before and may lead to emotional difficulties. Also that this child would lack individuality and the freedom to create his or her own expectations.
He than goes on to disprove this by bringing up the fact that monozygotic twins are essentially clones of each other and have different personalities entirely.
Also that these twins have a unique closeness that others don't. Differences in mitochondria, the uterus, and a childhood environment will minimize the risk of overidentification with the first twin.
Robertson The second fear that he expresses is that parents who choose their child's genome through somatic-cell cloning will view the child as a commodity or an object to serve their own ends. Robertson He goes on to disprove this issue by saying what really counts is how a child is treated after birth, not on how the were actually conceived.
I believe that most of Robertson's article was well documented and had relevant supporting data. I don't see any propaganda being used by him in order to influence the reader. I see that he put both positive and negative aspects of cloning into his article and explained both parts equally if not more on the negative side.
I can see where someone with strong feelings on this issue can be bias on the readings due to the fact that their mind is already made up, but I think that he make a much more convincing argument than does Annas.
I believe that the use of explaining why he was for it and giving concrete examples as to why it shouldn't be banned were the best ways to make his article effective. Annas' article "Why we should ban Human cloning" brings up many different issues on why Human cloning should banned.
After reading his article it doesn't really give any concrete reason other than cloning devalues people by depriving them of their uniqueness. Even with this issue he kind of beats around the bush and doesn't explain it well.
He brings up fictional books and compares the creation of "dolly" the sheep to that of Frankenstein. He than goes into saying that this would lead to parents cloning a recently dead child as a means of bereavement. He doesn't really document his opinions well, he brings up issues and compares them to others that have either opposed him or that he agrees with.
His work, I think is biased due to the fact that he is a medical ethicist and that in his own words says that physicians, scientists, and those with strong medical opinions should not make up a national committee on this subject.The societal issue being addressed in this article is the cloning of humans and nuclear cell fusion.
This question lingering into every household Should we be playing God? This question has substantial points on each side.
Some people think that we shouldn’t be manipulating nature’s creatio. Extremely Controversial Topic of Human Cloning Essay Words 3 Pages Human cloning is one of the most controversial topics regarding modern science, and the advances of genealogical study. - Human Cloning Debate and Life Issues The use of cloning to produce "Dolly" the sheep has prompted a public debate about cloning humans.
This issue has quickly become linked with the issues of abortion and embryo research. American Literature Essay Human Cloning Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy of a human being, a human body part or human genes using donor DNA from somatic cells.
Over the past 8 years since the development of first human clone human cloning is a controversial issue. In the world of technological advances that exists today, the issue of cloning is ever present as a debate of morals and human rights.
People are asking if humans have the right to clone ourselves. - Human Cloning Human Cloning comes with two dangerous processes, reproductive cloning (the creating of a new organism) and the therapeutic cloning (the creation of a new tissues or “other biological products”) which affects the ethics of human society.