An analysis of transracial and open adoption new forms of family relationships

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An analysis of transracial and open adoption new forms of family relationships

Despite the known importance of parent-adolescent relationships drawn from the general population, we know little about how adoptive family relationships change or remain the same as adopted adolescents enter young adulthood. Utilizing the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, the purpose of this study is to build upon previous research to explore differences in conflict, closeness, and relationship quality between adoptive and nonadoptive families during the transition from late adolescence into young adulthood.

Self-report and independent observations were collected from children, mothers, and fathers at late adolescence While adoptive family dyads had lower relationship indicators compared to nonadoptive family dyads, similar trends over time occurred for both family types.

Using individuation theory, we suggest individuation occurs for both types of families, with adoptees facing unique additional challenges during this process, including integration of adoption status, adoption communicativeness, adoption information seeking, and relationship with birth parents as possible influences in this process.

There are approximately 1. The increased prevalence of adoptive families confirms the importance of understanding adoptive family relationships.

As stigma surrounding adoption has decreased, adoptive family research has increased, focusing on parent-child relationships during childhood and adolescence.

An analysis of transracial and open adoption new forms of family relationships

Evidence exists for a relationship between secure adoptive family attachment and healthy development starting in infancy Ainsworth, ; Brodzinsky, Within the family context, as they age from childhood through adolescence, adoptees may face increased vulnerability while navigating identity development complicated by adoption status and lack of cognitive ability necessary to process complex and abstract grief related to adoption Brodzinsky, Adolescent adoptive family research has furthered our knowledge of family relationships through the study of conflict, closeness, and relationship quality.

More recently, two studies have made significant contributions to furthering our understanding of adolescent adoptive family relationships. First, Loehlin, Horn, and Ernstasked identified mid-life adoptees and nonadoptees to complete a retrospective measure of family closeness on their parents during adolescence.

Parents and siblings of the identified adults were also asked to complete retrospective measures of family closeness on the identified adult during adolescence, and were asked to rate their perceived level of closeness that existed between other family members and the identified adult.

Results supported a general level of closeness within families, regardless of family type. Second, Rueter, Keyes, Iacono, and McGue assessed warm, supportive communication; parental control; and conflict in adoptive and nonadoptive parent-adolescent dyads using self-report and independent observer ratings.

While adoptive family relationship research is progressing, a notable gap exists in our knowledge. While we have some information about adoptive family relationships during adolescence, we know little about how adoptive family relationships change or remain the same as adolescents enter young adulthood.

Therefore, there is a need to examine adoptive family relationships during the transition to adulthood. The purpose of this study is to explore family relationships among adoptive and nonadoptive families during the transition from late adolescence into young adulthood.

Individuation Theory The transition from adolescence into young adulthood presents a unique set of challenges not only for the individual, but also the family. How individuation occurs within a family has strong implications for parent-child relationships in late adolescence and young adulthood.

Successful individuation has been associated with numerous positive outcomes, including greater relationship quality with parents and increased closeness with mothers Buhl, Additionally, the presence of strong emotional ties in families has been found to be unaffected by familial conflict Buhl, Failure to successfully individuate also has ramifications outside of the parent-child relationship, as long-term conflict with parents may foster mistrust and insecurity in future relationships Hoffman, While individuation theory has been used to contextualize relationship changes within families during the transition from adolescence into young adulthood, virtually little is known how this process might differ for parents and children in adoptive families.

Given the unique tasks inherent in adoptive family life Brodzinsky, ; Kirk,it is reasonable to believe the process of individuation might be complicated for adoptive parent-child dyads. Importance of Close Family Relationships Despite the absence of adoptive family relationship research on the transition from late adolescence into young adulthood, family relationship research in the general population has supported these relationships as key across the life span.

While the grieving process may resolve, internal working models of the parent continue to influence the adult child indefinitely Ainsworth, Family relationship research from the general population allows us to make conclusions about the importance of family relationships, including adoptive families.

Third, parent-child relationships influence adolescent and young adult adjustment, psychosocial and psychological well-being. Finally, those with histories of high-quality interpersonal relationships are likely to be better adjusted as adults Englund, et al.

Family Relationship Change Over Time Family relationships during the transition from late adolescence into young adulthood have been conceptualized in the general population in a number of ways, including dimensions such as parent-child conflict, parent-child closeness, and overall parent-child relationship quality.

Early assumptions were replaced with the view that some parent-adolescent conflict is more likely to occur during adolescence, but with individual variation in the degree which this conflict is experienced Arnett, ; Belsky et al. Despite research showing slight increases in conflict during early adolescence, support has also existed for a linear decrease in parent-adolescent conflict, particularly during the transition from mid to late adolescence De Goede et al.Request PDF on ResearchGate | Sibling relationships in transracial adoptive families | (From the chapter) Sibling relationships in adoptive families remain largely unexplored in .

Adoption agencies, centers and attorneys are arranging and creating open adoptions in increasing numbers across the United States, but little is known about how widespread this practice is, or how. The number of transracial adoptions in the United States, particularly international adoptions, is increasing annually.

Counseling psychology as a profession, however, is a relatively silent voice in the research on and practice of transracial adoption.

An analysis of transracial and open adoption new forms of family relationships

Find out whether adopting a transracial child is right for you and your family Family Relationships Health & Fitness; Managing Your Home; Family Finances People who support transracial adoption say that what children need is a loving family and that too many African-American children remain in foster care while African-American.

In the Chapter I “Transracial and Open Adoption: New Forms of Family Relationships” from the book “Making Babies, Making Familise” Mary Lyndon Shanley dwells on different types of adoption.

She analyses and classifies those types, gives explanation why this or that type of adoption was preferable in different periods from historical.

Required Books It may not mean what you think it means. Yes, transracial is a thing.
The Adoption and Safe Families Act was signed into law to expedite the process of legally removing children from their birth families and the foster care system, and placing them with adoptive families. A review of the Adoption and Safe Families Act using the family impact principles reveals the challenges and paradoxes of a child-centered policy.

In the Chapter I “Transracial and Open Adoption: New Forms of Family Relationships” from the book “Making Babies, Making Familise” Mary Lyndon Shanley dwells on different types of adoption.

10 Tips for a Successful Transracial Adoption - The Mash-Up Americans