It might suggest, in one view, that revolutionary terror was so pervasive in France during this period as to have been virtually inescapable, yet in many areas of the country there were few, if any, executions in and Alternatively, the label might be taken to refer to the dictatorial power of the Committee of Public Safetythe group of twelve deputies who assumed executive authority during the Terror, or to Maximilien Robespierre, who was accused by his opponents of aspiring to dictatorial power. Yet, the Terror, for all of its ferocity and its many victims, was a legal policy, and those condemned to die on the guillotine or by other means were, in the majority, charged with specific crimes and convicted by official tribunals.
This debate has found its way not only in historical circles, but also in philosophypolitical theory and sociology. Throughout its historical life, the Jacobin Republic, under the dominance of the Montagnards July - Julyhas been praised, criticized and slowly brushed under the carpet.
Its legacy, which at one time was debated furiously, has now more or less lost significance, even amongst the radical Left of this post-modernist, Fukuyamaist2 political milieu. Portrait of Maximilien Robespierre This article looks to trace the life of Robespierre and his Terror through the lens of various strands of historiographies.
In doing so, I take up some of the major historians3 who have written extensively about the same. The article also attempts to trace the nature of the Reign of Terror through its achievements and excesses.
It is most interesting to note, as many historians have put forth, that the politico-historical hero of the French Revolution was a man like Robespierre, a person that few of his contemporaries might have foreseen as the face of the Revolution.
His was a family of lawyers, both his father and grandfather being barristers. He did not have an extravagant lifestyle and his humble origins might have led, as Furet and some others argue, to his sincerity and incorruptibility as a politician in later life.
As David Thompson describes him, He [Robespierre] was a little man of humble origins made great by the upheaval of revolution. In purpose and principal, he stood for all that Jacobinism stands for: These concepts were to greatly influence him henceforth. In he joined the Jacobin Club with full devotion to their cause.
Subsequently he gained importance in the Jacobin circles as the chief spokesperson for the Montagnards in the National Convention; he passionately countered the Gironde dominance over the Convention and influenced, though not directly took part9, in the purging of the Gironde.
It was in July of that Robespierre gained his highest office as a member of the Committee of Public Safety, succeeding Danton10, and subsequently gaining virtual control over the Committee.
Legislation of Robespierre's Committee A set of laws and legislations was passed through the year, which set the tone for the Jacobin Republic — true and authentic radicalism. Later on 10 Junea law redistributed all common lands under seigneurialism amongst the people who lived close to it.
On 17 Junethe Church became part of the state machinery by law. The State determined the roles of the church. He also instituted the festival of the Supreme Being and radically constitutionalized the clergy.
Militarily, the Committee of Public Safety made huge achievements. The Committee, through the genius of Carnot, was able to mobilise the whole nation for the Revolutionary War.
Thus, decisive victories were won by the French army against virtually the whole of Europe14, which had declared war on France. Both were two sides of the same coin— that of Terror.
The former was the economic face of the Terror, which fixed the prices of many goods of daily consumption such as bread, soap, meat, cloth etc. The latter was the politico-legal face of the coin.
According to the Law of 22 Prairial, all enemies of the Republic equated with the enemies of the Revolution would be brought before the Revolutionary Tribunal and tried for treason, with only one punishment— the guillotine.
It is estimated by Norman Hampson that 2, capital sentences were carried out during this period, of which 1, happened in June-July It is thus, very interesting and most complex a phenomena that the Reign of Terror was.
On the other, it led to the first state-led terror in human history, killing many citizens in the name of the Revolution and General Will.Reign of Terror, also called The Terror, French La Terreur, the period of the French Revolution from September 5, , to July 27, (9 Thermidor, year II).
Maximilien Robespierre was born in northern France on May 6, After his parents died, Maximilien and his three siblings went to live with their grandparents. Young Maximilien was a smart child who enjoyed reading and studying law.
In these post-modern28 times, when we believe–as Francis Fukuyama holds–that we are at the end of history, the Robespierres of history are being slowly forgotten or demonized. The level of analyses is now at a level where Maximilien Robespierre, Joseph Stalin and Mao Zedong are held in the.
Reign of Terror, also called The Terror, French La Terreur, the period of the French Revolution from September 5, , to July 27, (9 Thermidor, year II).
The Revolution which evoluted the conspiracy of Right and leftist log. where Aristocratic leaders of their own country betrayed their own countrymen by suppression with the help of forgien armies.
Maximilien Robespierre biography Maximilien Robespierre (Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre) was born on May 6th, , in Arras where his father was based as an advocate. .